Welcome to "Helena As She Was"
Your Award-winning Helena, Montana History Wiki!

Share your Helena-related images and other material via this free educational resource!

West Sixth Avenue from Main, 1960s




Since going online in 2006, this site has welcomed more than 112 individual contibutors of Helena-related images, ephemera and recollections. Those good folks, through their interest in history and willingness to share, have made "Helena As She Was" a valuable (and fun) Montana history resource for students, researchers, and those who just want to remember days gone by. The associated Facebook group now has over 3,500 members.

Edited and published by fourth-generation Helenan Kennon Baird, this site is commercial-free and free to access. There's a short biography of your host at the bottom of this page.

Awards

In 2012, this site was awarded both the Lewis & Clark County Heritage Tourism Council Historic Preservation Award and the Montana Preservation Alliance Director's Choice Technology Award for Outstanding Online Resource.

CLICK ON IMAGES TO VIEW AWARD CERTIFICATES

On behalf of everyone who has contibuted material to this site, I extend heartfelt thanks to the Lewis & Clark County Heritage and Tourism Council, and to the Montana Preservation Alliance for recognizing our efforts.

Working together, we have created a valuable and fun history resource that has been accessed by thousands of people around the world!

Let's keep up the good work!

Love to all,
Kennon Baird
Editor/Publisher

It's easy to share your Helena-related material via this site! Scroll down this page past "Recent Additions" and the Contributors Roster for more information...




Enjoy "Helena As She Was" on Facebook!
Now Over 4,300 Members!

CLICK THE FACEBOOK LOGO AND BECOME A FAN OF THIS SITE.
DISCUSS HELENA HISTORY, RECEIVE NOTIFICATION OF SITE UPDATES,
AND ENJOY SURPRISE EXTRAS LIKE THE HELENA HISTORY PHOTO QUIZ.

 

Where are the women? Well, one place they’re not is in your typical Montana history book.

But a group of historians at the Montana Historical Society are changing that. For 2014, in honor of the 100th anniversary of women’s suffrage in Montana, they’ve launched the Women’s History Matters project.

Beginning Jan. 1, you can go online at MontanaWomensHistory.org and find all sorts of fascinating stories about Montana women – from warriors to lawyers.

To visit the site, just click on the logo above.


Helena Urban Renewal Exhibit
On Display Through 2013
Lewis & Clark County History Center, 101 N. Last Chance Gulch



CLICK ON IMAGE TO OPEN EXHIBIT MAP (PDF FILE)

The Lewis & Clark County Historical Society has mounted a new exhibit on the history of Helena’s still-controversial 1970s Model City program. Called “REMEMBERING URBAN RENEWAL”, the exhibit includes input from those who ran the program, as well as images and physical artifacts from the grand Victorian and Edwardian buildings that fell to the federal wrecking ball. The destruction of the beloved Marlow Theatre is spotlighted.

Exhibit hours are noon to 5 p.m. Mondays through Thursdays; volunteers are being sought and to staff it additional hours, including evenings. Call 406-447-8357 or email PAttardo (at) co.lewis-clark.mt.us to volunteer.

 

4/13/2014 - Capital Hotel
A SMALL 1880s HOTEL ON RAILROAD AVENUE, DEMOLISHED BY THE 1935 EARTHQUAKES
4/8/2014 - 1883 View of the City
A LARGE, DETAILED VIEW OF THE BRIDGE (STATE) STREET NEIGHBORHOOD, 'CATHOLIC HILL' AND BEYOND. PHOTO BY F. JAY HAYNES, COURTESY OF THE SEAN LOGAN COLLECTION
03/05/2014 - Fort William Henry Harrison UPDATE
ADDED ARE NUMEROUS PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE FACILITY AND THE TROOPS. SPECIAL THANKS TO DAVID POOR FOR SHARING IMAGES FROM HIS COLLECTION
2/16/2014 - The Corner Bar
A FAMILIAR SIGHT AT THE CORNER OF HIGHWAY 12 AND WILLIAMS ST., THIS ESTABLISHMENT, UNDER VARIOUS NAMES, HAS BEEN SERVING THE DRINKING PUBLIC SINCE ABOUT 1934
12/29/2013 - Chinese Gardens
BIG VIEWS OF THE GARDENS AT THE JUNCTION OF GRIZZLY AND ORO FINO GULCHES, ONE OF SEVERAL 'CHINESE GARDENS' THAT HELPED SUPPLY PRODUCE TO EARLY-DAY HELENA. PHOTOS COURTESY OF THE JEZICK COLLECTION AND THE DAVID POOR COLLECTION

12/17/2013 - Capital Lanes
LOCATED AT NORTH MONTANA AVE. AND ELM ST., CAPITAL LANES WAS IN OPERATION FROM 1949 TO 1957, WHEN IT WAS GUTTED BY FIRE

12/07/2013 - KFDW/KCAP Radio UPDATE
ADDED ARE A 1953 PHOTO OF THE ORIGINAL STATION ON JEROME PLACE, AND SEVERAL NEWSPAPER CLIPPINGS ABOUT THE EARLY DAYS OF THE STATION
11/23/2013 - The Millegan Ranch
THREE GENERATIONS WORKED THE LAND, BEGINNING IN 1865
11/11/2013 - Al's Drive-In
IN OPERATION FOR ONLY A COUPLE OF YEARS IN THE EARLY 1950s. THE BUILDING STILL STANDS ON NINTH AVENUE
11/11/2013 - Eddy's Drive-In UPDATE
ADDED ARE SEVERAL NEW IMAGES AND ARTICLES ABOUT THE VARIOUS BUSINESSES THAT OCCUPIED THE BUILDING WHICH ONCE STOOD AT 812 NORTH MAIN. ROBBERY, GUNPLAY AND DEATH ARE INCLUDED
11/06/2013 - Family Theatre & Reeves Music House UPDATE
ADDED ARE SEVERAL NEW IMAGES, INCLUDING A MAP SHOWING THE SITE OF THE FAMILY THEATRE, A PORTRAIT OF A. I. 'DADDY' REEVES, AND A BEAUTIFUL PHOTO OF THE 1928 'NEWSIES' PICNIC, SPONSORED BY REEVES
10/23/2013 - Louis Johnson, Contractor - 1863-1952
YOU'LL STILL FIND HIS NAME IN CONCRETE AROUND HELENA
9/21/2013 - The Goodkind Building
AT SIXTH AND MAIN SINCE 1884
9/04/2013 - 43 Spencer St.
ORIGINALLY BUILT AS A STABLE IN 1887, THE QUAINT BUT BADLY DETERIORATED HOUSE WAS SLATED FOR DEMOLITION IN 2013. PHOTOS BY PAMELA J. ATTARDO
9/01/2013 - Payne's Hotel & Corral
ONCE HELENA'S OLDEST HOTEL, IT STOOD ON THE SITE OF TODAY'S CITY-COUNTY BUILDING FROM 1870-1900. THE CORRAL WAS ACROSS THE STREET
8/29/2013 - 313 Pine Street
HELENA'S OLDEST FRAME HOUSE, STANDING SINCE 1865
8/27/2013 - Old Lewis & Clark County Courthouse UPDATE
SEVERAL NEW PHOTOS AND NEWSPAPER ARTICLES HAVE BEEN ADDED.
INTERESTING VIEWS OF 1935 EARTHQUAKE DAMAGE
8/22/2013 - Montana Capitol UPDATE
ADDED ARE THREE 1925 VIEWS OF TREE DAMAGE DUE TO A HEAVY SEPTEMBER SNOWFALL, PLUS AN EARLY VIEW OF THE ROTUNDA STAIRCASE. COURTESY OF THE DAVID POOR COLLECTION
8/17/2013 - Railroads UPDATE
ADDED ARE THREE CIRCA 1905 PHOTOS OF THE LONG-GONE BIRDSEYE DEPOT AND SECTION HOUSE; TWO CIRCA 1903 PHOTOS OF THE MARYSVILE TRESTLE; A CIRCA 1920 VIEW OF THE NORTHERN PACIFIC ROUNDHOUSE AND SHOPS IN HELENA. MOST OF THE NEW PHOTOS ARE COURTESY OF THE DAVID POOR COLLECTION.
8/14/2013 - Sixth and Main UPDATE
SEVERAL NEW PHOTOS OF THE DOWNTOWN INTERSECTION THAT WAS ONCE HELENA'S HUB, COURTESY OF THE DAVID POOR COLLECTION
8/6/2013 - The Bluestone House UPDATE
FIVE NEW IMAGES OF THE ICONIC 1890 BUILDING, INCLUDING FOUR RARE CIRCA 1940 VIEWS OF THE HILLSIDE AND STRUCTURES IMMEDIATELY NORTH OF THE HOUSE, COURTESY OF APRIL COEN
7/3/2013 - The Goodie Shop
DELICIOUS BAKED GOODS 1937-2001
4/30//2013 - Knapp & Buck Saddlery
THREE LOCATIONS IN HELENA, 1941 TO 1963. PHOTOS COURTESY OF PAUL DANIELS
3/26//2013 - Blackstone Apartments
AT 206 WEST LAWRENCE SINCE 1915
3/10/2013 - Kessler Brewing Co. UPDATE
A FEW NEW IMAGES, UPGRADED OLDER IMAGES, AND ADDED HISTORY
2/23/2013 - Civic Center UPDATE
SCROLL DOWN THE LINKED PAGE FOR FOUR CIRCA 1937 PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE CIVIC CENTER (THEN THE ALGERIA SHRINE TEMPLE) UNDERGOING POST-EARTHQUAKE REPAIRS. COURTESY OF THE HELENA CIVIC CENTER, VIA KERRY BROWN
2/12/2013 - Central Beer Hall
ONCE HELENA'S OLDEST BAR, THE CENTRAL WAS DEMOLISHED BY THE URBAN RENEWAL PROGRAM IN 1971. INCLUDED ARE PHOTOS OF THE DEMOLTION, TAKEN BY JAN BROWN AND PRESENTED HERE COURTESY OF RICHARD ALBERTS
1/29/2013 - Northern Pacific (Union) Depot UPDATE
SCROLL DOWN THE LINKED PAGE FOR RECENT PHOTOS OF THE 1901 SETH THOMAS CLOCK MECHANISM IN THE DEPOT TOWER, COURTESY OF DARRELL BECKSTROM
1/12/2013 - Lake Helena Bridge 1904-1951
REPLACED BY THE CAUSEWAY IN 1944
Also -
The Sad Story of Miss Helen Grohbrugge
12/14/2012 - J. C. Penney Store #1102
PENNEY'S OPENED IN HELENA IN 1929 AT 304-306 NORTH MAIN. IT WAS THERE UNTIL 1961. BEAUTIFUL PHOTOS OF THE OLD STORE FROM THE J. C. PENNEY ARCHIVES, DEGOLYER LIBRARY, SOUTHERN METHODIST UNIVERSITY
12/11/2012 - Terah "T. T." Maroney
COLORFUL AVIATOR MARONEY WAS THE FIRST LICENSED PILOT IN MONTANA. THE CENTERPIECE OF THIS FEATURE ARE 13 NEVER-BEFORE-PUBLISHED 1910 PHOTOGRAPHS OF TERAH AND HIS FIRST HOMEMADE AEROPLANE, TAKEN IN GREAT FALLS BY HELENA BUSINESSMAN RAYMOND C. GRANT, AND PRESENTED HERE COURTESY OF HIS GRANDDAUGHTER, WENDI KOTTAS PETERSON
Frontier Town
THIS FONDLY-REMEMBERED TOURIST ATTRACTION ATOP MACDONALD PASS WAS A GRAND EXAMPLE OF AMERICAN FOLK ART. IT WAS ESSENTIALLY HAND-BUILT BY ONE MAN, JOHN R. QUIGLEY, JR. HUGE THANKS TO KITTY ANN QUIGLEY TAALER FOR MAKING THIS FEATURE POSSIBLE.
Panoramic View of Downtown, circa 1911
LOOKING WEST FROM THE GRANDON HOTEL. SCANS OF THREE NEGATIVES, COURTESY OF WENDI KOTTAS PETERSON, WITH PANORAMA PHOTO-STITCHING BY SEAN LOGAN
Old City Hall
A CENTER OF ACTIVITY ON SOUTH MAIN FROM 1885 TO 1935.
IMAGES AND HISTORY CONTIBUTED BY HELENA FIRE CHIEF SEAN LOGAN

Rio/Vigilante Theatre
COURTESY OF TOM MULVANEY AND THE TED KIRKMEYER COLLECTION, WE PRESENT SEVERAL LOVELY IMAGES OF THIS DOWNTOWN ART DECO CINEMA, ALONG WITH AN EXPANDED HISTORY OF THE BUILDING -- WHICH STILL STANDS AT 335 NORTH LAST CHANCE GULCH

The Marlow Theatre
ONCE HELENA'S SHOWPLACE, THE BELOVED 1918 THEATRE WAS DEMOLISHED DURING HELENA'S 1970s 'URBAN RENEWAL' PROGRAM

The Parrot Confectionery
VIRTUALLY UNCHANGED SINCE THE 1930s, THE PARROT STILL "TALKS FOR ITSELF" ON LAST CHANCE GULCH

The Old Brewery Theatre
A NOTED SUMMER STOCK THEATRE ONCE HOUSED IN THE OLD CAPITAL BREWERY BUILDING ON WEST MAIN. DESTROYED BY 'URBAN RENEWAL' IN THE 1970S
Lewis & Clark County Fairgrounds
ONCE THE HOME OF THE TERRITORIAL AND STATE FAIRS. THE HISTORIC RACETRACK DATES FROM 1870
House of Wong
DECADES OF POPULAR CHINESE FARE, INCLUDING THOSE MEMORABLE
PORK NOODLES
Annotated 1890/91 View of Chinatown
and the Old West Side

PHOTO COURTESY OF SEAN LOGAN. THE ANNOTATIONS SHOWING LANDMARKS ARE DERIVED FROM VARIOUS SOURCES. CLICK HERE TO VIEW/DOWNLOAD A NON-ANNOTATED VERSION
A Tribute to Broadcaster Al Johnson
A VERSATILE ARTIST AND TRUE GENTLEMAN, AL JOHNSON WAS THE PREEMINENT VOICE OF HELENA RADIO FOR NEARLY HALF A CENTURY. SCROLL DOWN THE LINKED PAGE FOR A TRIBUTE TO AL, INCLUDING RARE PHOTOS AND AUDIO. Special thanks to Walli Johnson and Wally Peel
The Fire Tower - "Guardian of the Gulch"
HELENA'S SYMBOL HAS A COLORFUL HISTORY
"Dear Old Montana" - Play it in mp3!
WRITTEN IN 1931 BY HELENA SISTERS GENEE AND MIMI MILLIGAN,
"DEAR OLD MONTANA" WAS DEDICATED TO THE 22nd LEGISLATIVE
ASSEMBLY. THE SHEET MUSIC PICTURED WAS INSCRIBED BY THE
SISTERS TO "DADDY" REEVES, AN EARLY HELENA MUSIC EDUCATOR
AND IMPRESARIO. SCROLL DOWN THE LINKED PAGE TO READ ABOUT
MR. REEVES, THE MILLIGAN SISTERS, AND TO PLAY THE SONG


1894 Williams Street Bridge
THIS LOVELY IRON PONY-TRUSS BRIDGE WEST OF HELENA
WAS REMOVED IN THE SUMMER OF 2009. SCROLL
DOWN THE LINKED PAGE FOR SIX 2004 VIEWS OF THE BRIDGE,
COURTESY OF THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. ALSO, HISTORIAN
JON AXLINE'S EXCELLENT 2005 HISTORIC AMERICAN ENGINEERING
RECORD PAPER ABOUT THE BRIDGE AND ITS ENVIRONS

PLUS: THE WILLIAMS STREET BRIDGE IN ART -- A STRIKING
PASTEL PAINTING OF THE ROMANTIC BRIDGE BY NOTED HELENA ARTIST
KATHRYN FEHLIG

Dorothy's Rooms ~ Helena's Last Bordello
RARE PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE INTERIOR, AND CLOTHES WORN BY THE GIRLS

Link to Historic Helena Fire Dept. Photos
CAPTAIN SEAN LOGAN OF THE HELENA FIRE DEPARTMENT IS POSTING
TO A FACEBOOK GROUP A BEAUTIFUL SELECTION OF PHOTOGRAPHS, INTERVIEWS AND OTHER MATERIAL FROM THE HFD ARCHIVES. IT'S A
MUST-SEE FOR THOSE INTERESTED IN HELENA'S HISTORY.


MANY THANKS TO CAPT. LOGAN AND THE HFD FOR SHARING THEIR OUTSTANDING ARCHIVE!

"Helena - City of Gold" VIDEO DOWNLOAD - 27:24
A promotional film produced in 1973 by the Helena Chamber of Commerce.

HELENA'S HISTORY, RECREATONAL ACTIVITIES AND COMMERCE ARE HIGHLIGHTED THROUGH THE CHARACTER OF BOB STANLEY, ONE OF THE 'FOUR GEORGIANS' WHO DISCOVERED GOLD IN LAST CHANCE GULCH IN 1864. STANLEY SUDDENLY FINDS HIMSELF IN HELENA IN 1973, AND IS BOTH BEDEVILED AND AMUSED BY MODERN LIFE


VIDEO COURTESY OF KITTY ANN QUIGLEY TAALER.
Open with realPlayer.
Early Helena TV RECOMMENDED LINK
VETERAN HELENA BROADCASTER WALLY PEEL HAS PUT TOGETHER AN EXCELLENT HISTORY OF EARLY-DAY HELENA TELEVISION FOR THE KTVH WEBSITE
Click here to visit!
NOTE: WALLY SAYS IT'S STILL A WORK IN PROGRESS, SO CHECK BACK FOR MORE!
The Oct. 10 2006 Helena Independent Record story about this website
4/16/2012 - Beartooth NBC - Helena
A SHORT VIDEO FEATURE ABOUT THIS WEBSITE, PRODUCED BY
KRISTIN PRICE


These good folks have all shared their Helena photographs, ephemeria and memories via this site.

If you enjoy "Helena As She Was", these are the people to thank!

Tim Kuney Scott Nelson Ray Cumming Laura Blumenthal
Charleen Spalding Vic Reiman Bill Higgins Kitty A. Quigley Taaler
Don Hoffman Kathleen Ely Kirby Lambert Chuck Jezick
Joe Munzenrider Anonymous (3) Janet Stellmon Sidney Armstrong
Gerry Early Wes & Carol Synness Sister Dolores Brinkel Charlie Beaton
Nancy Goodspeed Darcy O'Dell Pamela Attardo Blake Gardiner
Jeff Sherlock Don Cornish David Hull Tom Kilmer
The Bisom Family Chris Warren Patrick Ryan Dennis Dickert
Cathee Crapo Inez Slayman Derek Evers Ralph Beer
Kathryn Fehlig Michael E. Holmes Ellen Baumler Kathleen Daniusis
Linda Beattie Anderson Wally Peel Dan Duke D. R. Stinson
Orchard Lakes School Lisa Kennedy
Carol & Charles Anderson
Jason Francis
Rowena Clarke Fulk Bob & Susie Lindeberg Tim Rusek Frank Cuta
Bob Guffey Roy E. Millegan Virgie M. Baird Dave Thomas
Mike Millegan Judy Bakke Kerry Brown Patty Dean
Steve Andre David Marriot Keith Nay Tom Mulvaney
Jack Womack David Burton Marilyn Lamb Roberts Capt. Sean Logan
The Helena Fire Dept.
Intermountain
Childrens Home
Vivian Hayes The Ray & Phil Jezick
Collection
G. B. Carson
Patti Casey Scott Dave Dubé Danny Larson Jeff Wong
Susie Morrison Annah Smith Patricia Rogers Glisson J. M. Cooper
The George Huber
Collection
Walli Johnson Vince Moravek Aub Kirkland
Tana Dearborn Rhonda Wilson Jodie Miller Monty Cowles
Ray Lindsey Robin Evans
Diane
Macaraeg-Langenfus
The Joyce Oliva-Anderson Collection
Robert Noel Clarkson Wanda Power Daniel Sullivan Deb Winston Bushnell
Gail Hatch Kathleen Kinney Terese Penix Paul Daniels
Steve Moody Jean Allen Davis P. Christiaan Klieger The Family of
Gertrude Haight Miller
Roger Liedle Vicki Pawlitschek Janet Abrams Wendi Kottas Peterson
Jerry Hopkins John and Rosie Crocker Craig Kirwin Connie Ferriter
Al Ballard Jan Fusco Loretta Wallace Smith Phil Gunn
Trudy Erickson Helen Margaret Grant Collection of the late
Henry W. Jorgensen
Maxine Gilmour
Doug and Kathy Lindgren Calvin Schneckloth Clint Vincent Myrtle Prohaska
Richard Smith Rich Weddle Bill Clarkson Roberta Zieske
Colleen McCarthy Cathy Green E. O. Kindschy, Jr. Mike Hausler
Darrell Beckstrom Greg Logan June Virag
Diane Stavnes,
Helena Civic Center
Richard Alberts David Poor Stephen A. D. Hahn
Peggy Flynn April Coen Peter Brown
Montana SHPO
Chuck Siefert
Montana Memory Project Rita Cross Autumn Barnett Lorilei Cochran
Jerry Walker Terry Wareham Shannon
Matthies-Callahan
Annell Fillinger




Sharing Your Photos & Recollections


MAIN ST. LOOKING SOUTH, ABOUT 1913 • COURTESY OF WES & CAROL SYNNESS

If You Have Images of Helena to Share,
Simply Contact Me Via E-mail !


Please try to include the word "HELENA" in the subject line of your first email, so it won't be mistaken for spam and accidentally deleted.

Usually, images are scanned and e-mailed to me by contributors. Contributors will occasionally mail CDs with photos on them. When those methods aren't practical, the actual photos or other materials are sent to me via U. S. Mail. I scan the material and return it, paying for insured postage both ways. I can scan photographs, slides and negatives.

I will credit your contributions (if you so desire), and will also add your personal recollections to the material you send. I can't offer monetary compensation for images sent in, but website and/or email links may be added to your contributions and to your name on the home page Roster.

The emphasis is on old photographs and other images of businesses, schools, churches, neighborhoods, streets, events and other subjects of GENERAL INTEREST. I'm also interested in old Helena advertising and promotional ephemera.

A Library, Not an Archive

This is a living library, not an archive, so please be advised that your images will be in the PUBLIC DOMAIN when they're published here, which means they'll be up for grabs by anyone who wants to use them. My outlook is that it's better for people to see, use and learn from such pictures than it is to let them languish in drawers or old albums. In that spirit, I've included many of my own photographs in the site, along with numerous postcards, etc., from my collection. I acquire Helena-related images and ephemera for my own collection as my budget allows.

This website is a ONE-MAN OPERATION, but I endeavor to add all material sent to me in a timely manner. Occasionally, I will hold material until I can expand the story using online newspaper archives and other resources. I stay in contact with contributors.



ABOUT PHOTOGRAPHS OF PEOPLE

Your Great Grandmother Viola was no doubt a beautiful person, but please limit submissions of photos featuring people to those which show them in a broader HELENA-RELATED CONTEXT. No studio portraits.

Please avoid snapshots of people which show little or nothing of the city.

"GENERAL INTEREST"
is what to keep in mind when selecting your submissions. THANKS!


This Site is Hosted by an Actual Helena Native!


Kennon Baird • Editor and Publisher

Kennon Baird's pioneer Great Grandfather, Wallace Millegan, began ranching in the Helena Valley in 1865, coming by way of Bannack and Blackfoot City. The Millegan homestead was the first in the Helena Valley, and 13th in the Territory of Montana.

Ken was born in 1950, at the old St. Peter's Hospital on Logan Street. He lived in Helena until 1972, attending Kessler School, C. R. Anderson School, Helena Junior High, and Helena High School. Ken spent many years working in Houston, Texas, where he also studied design at the University of Houston. In 1998, Ken moved to the San Francisco Bay Area with wife Kathleen, who is a business systems analyst for a biotech company.

Ken enjoys art, history, writing, music and gardening. He's a member of the Sons and Daughters of Montana Pioneers and the Montana Historical Society. Ken's home website is Lifelike Charm.


"Into my heart an air that kills
From yon far country blows:
What are those blue remembered hills,
What spires, what farms are those?

That is the land of lost content,
I see it shining plain,
The happy highways where I went
And cannot come again."

- Alfred Edward Housman, A Shropshire Lad


DID YOU FIND AN INACCURACY?
If you spot an inaccuracy or wish to add information, please don't hesitate to contact me. I want this site to be as accurate as possible. If you have questions or comments about the structure of the site in general, please write.

Please enjoy your visit to Helena, the Queen City of the Rockies...as she was


DISCLAIMER ...This site is educational and non-commercial in nature. To the best of my knowledge, the images presented on these pages are either in the public domain or are used in accordance with Fair Use practices. If you have concerns about this, contact me.